​1. No individual mandate penalty
Most of the tax code changes stemming from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 took effect in 2018. One exception is the change to the shared responsibility payment, which took effect in 2019.

The shared responsibility payment — commonly referred to as the individual mandate penalty — had applied to folks who were required to have health insurance under the Affordable Care Act but who didn’t get coverage and didn’t qualify for an exemption.

If you owed the penalty, it was due when you paid your taxes.

Starting with 2019, however, there is no longer a penalty. So, folks who didn’t have health insurance in 2019 will not owe the penalty when they file their taxes in 2020.

2. No alimony deduction
Elimination of the alimony deduction is another Tax Cuts and Jobs Act change that took effect for tax year 2019 rather than 2018. For divorce and separation agreements made or modified this year or thereafter, alimony payments will not be deductible, says IRS Publication 5307.

So, a spouse who got divorced this year and paid alimony in 2019 cannot write the payments off on a tax return in 2020. That also means that a spouse who got divorced in 2019 and received alimony this year cannot count the payments as income.

3. Higher Health Savings Accounts contribution limits
Health savings accounts are another type of tax-advantaged account for which the contribution limits generally increase as the years roll along.

HSAs are not strictly for retirement savings, although you can effectively use them as retirement accounts, as we explain in “3 Reasons to Get a Health Savings Account.”

The 2019 contribution limits for people who are eligible for an HSA and have the following types of high-deductible health insurance policies are:

Self-only coverage: $3,500 (up from $3,450 for 2018)
Family coverage: $7,000 (up from $6,900)

4. Higher standard deductions
Standard deductions are somewhat higher for tax year 2019 on account of inflation. The IRS reports that they are:

Married filing jointly: $24,400 (up $400 from last year)
Married filing separately: $12,200 (up $200)
Head of household: $18,350 (up $350)
Single: $12,200 (up $200)
The standard deduction reduces the amount of your income that’s subject to federal taxes. So, if a married couple filing a joint tax return are eligible for and choose to take the standard deduction on their 2019 return, they would not be taxed on the first $24,400 of their taxable income from 2019.

5. Higher income brackets
Income tax brackets are also somewhat higher for tax year 2019 than they were for 2018 on account of inflation.

The IRS reports that the tax rates and corresponding income brackets for 2019 are as follows for folks whose tax filing status is single:

37% tax rate: Applies to incomes of more than $510,300
35%: More than $204,100 but not more than $510,300
32%: More than $160,725 but not more than $204,100
24%: More than $84,200 but not more than $160,725
22%: More than $39,475 but not more than $84,200
12%: More than $9,700 but not more than $39,475
10%: $9,700 or less